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You are here:  Home » Toxicant and Disease Database » Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

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Menstrual disorders (abnormal bleeding, short cycles, long cycles, irregular cycles, painful periods)

Causes [strength of evidence]:

Menstrual disorders includes abnormal bleeding: hypermenorrhea/menorrhagia, ammenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, irregular cycles/metorrhagia, dysmenorrhea,

  • Baker SR and Wilkinson CF, ed. The Effects of Pesticides on Human Health. Workshop Proceedings, Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology XVIII. May 9-11, 1998. Princeton Science Publishing, Princeton.
  • Carpenter D.O. et al. Understanding the Human Health Effects of Chemical Mixtures. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110(suppl 1)25-42.
  • Choy, C.M et al. Infertility, blood mercury concentrations and dietary seafood consumption: a case-control study. BJOG 2002; 109(10):1121-1125
  • Cooper, G. S., Klebanoff, M. A., Promislow, J., Brock, J. W., & Longnecker, M. P. 2005. Polychlorinated biphenyls and menstrual cycle characteristics. Epidemiology, 16(2): 191-200.
  • Eskenazi, B. et al. Serum dioxin concentrations and menstrual cycle characteristics. Am J Epidemiol 2002;156(4):383-92.
  • Farr, SL et al. Pesticide use and menstrual cycle characteristics among premenopausal women in the agricultural health study. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160(12):1194-1204.
  • Figa-Talamanca, I., M.E. Traina, and E. Urbani, Occupational Exposures to Metals, Solvents, and Pesticides: Recent Evidence on Male Reproductive Effects and Biological Markers. Occup Med, 2001. 51(3): p. 174-188.
  • Miller, K.P., et al., In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2004. 198(2): p. 111-31.
  • Schettler, T. Infertility and Related Reproductive Disorders. Peer-reviewed report for Collaborative on Health and the Environment. Website: http://www.protectingourhealth.org/newscience/infertility/2003-04peerreviewinfertility.htm
  • Sharara, F.I., D.B. Seifer, and J.A. Flaws, Environmental toxicants and female reproduction. Fertil Steril, 1998. 70(4): p. 613-22.
  • Windham, G. et al. Chlorination by-products in drinking water and menstrual cycle function. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111(7):935-941.

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