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Fetotoxicity (miscarriage / spontaneous abortion, stillbirth)

Causes [strength of evidence]:

Anesthetic gases include halothane, nitrous oxide and ethane. Toluene, nitrous oxide, and ethylene oxide exposure in a male have been associated with miscarriage in the female partner. Trihalomethanes, including bromodichloromethane, are found in drinking water as by-products of disinfection (usually by chlorine). Pesticide exposure occupationally such as in farming and pesticide application in the home has been associated with spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. While some studies have investigated particular pesticides, most studies do not identify individual pesticide or classes of pesticides.

  • Solomon G.M. et al. Stillbirth after Occupational Exposure to N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Occup Environ Med 1996;38(7):705-713.
  • Sugiura-Ogasawara, M., et al., Exposure to bisphenol A is associated with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20(8): p. 2325-2329.
  • Tuormaa, T.E. Adverse effects of agrochemicals on reproduction and health: A brief review from the literature. J Nutr Environ Med. 1995;5(4):353-367.
  • Tyl, RW and Friedman, MA. Effects of acrylamide on rodent reproductive performance. Reprod Toxicol 2003;17(1):1-13.
  • Venners, S., et al., Preconception Serum DDT and Pregnancy Loss: A Prospective Study Using a Biomarker of Pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol, 2005. 162(8): p. 1-8.
  • Younglai, E.V., A.C. Holloway, and W.G. Foster, Environmental and occupational factors affecting fertility and IVF success. Hum Reprod Update, 2005. 11(1): p. 43-57.

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